Army of the Ukrainian National Republic. The armed forces of Ukraine during the struggle for independence (-NL-->1917–20). Unlike the Ukrainian Galician Army, the regular armed forces of the Western Ukrainian National Republic, the Army of the Ukrainian National Republic was never a regular, well-structured organization, but was made up of various armed volunteer units. The history of the UNR Army can be divided into three main phases: the periods of the Central Rada, the Hetman government, and the Directory of the Ukrainian National Republic, although the formation of its units in all phases was to a large degree spontaneous and chaotic.
During the Central Rada period the UNR Army was formed in three ways: (1) by spontaneous detachment of Ukrainian units from the Russian army, forming, on the western front, the Haidamaka Cavalry Regiment; in Moscow, three Shevchenko regiments; in Symferopil and Chernihiv, the Doroshenko regiments; in Kyiv, the Polubotok Regiment, the Khmelnytsky Regiment (Bohdanivtsi), and other smaller units; (2) through Ukrainianization of Russian army units (at first without, but later with, the consent of the Russian army command); (3) through the reorganization of former army units (eg, the Sich Riflemen company was formed out of Austrian prisoners of war in Russia) or the creation of new units out of various army personnel (eg, the Bluecoats were formed out of Ukrainian prisoners of war in German camps and the Graycoats were formed out of Ukrainian prisoners of war in Austrian camps).
The formation of Ukrainian units in the Russian army was part of the process of general disintegration of the multinational Russian army along national lines that had begun at the front and in the rear immediately after the February Revolution of 1917. Soviets of soldiers' deputies were elected by separate units. In units with a significant number of Ukrainian soldiers, separate Ukrainian soldiers' soviets were formed in parallel with the general soviets (in the rear they were called also soldiers' clubs, assemblies, and committees). Apart from the spontaneous national awakening, an important role in the formation of Ukrainian units was played by the Ukrainian Military Club (formed in Kyiv on 22 February on the initiative of Lt Mykola Mikhnovsky), which formed the Ukrainian Military Organizing Committee, whose task was to organize Ukrainian volunteer units. The appeals of the committee were very successful and stimulated the first manifestation of Ukrainian military strength during the All-Ukrainian military congresses in Kyiv (the first on 18–21 May 1917, the second on 18–23 June, the third on 2–12 November), which supported the Central Rada unconditionally, called for the separation of Ukrainian units from the Russian army and elected the first military leadership—the Ukrainian Military Committee.
Instances of spontaneous Ukrainianization on the front became widespread (on the northern front, the 21st Corps; on the Romanian front, the 10th and 11th corps; on the western front, part of the 9th Corps). In units that were nationally mixed, the Ukrainian soldiers formed their own subunits, in which both discipline and fighting ability were superior and resistance to the Bolshevik appeals for demobilization was stronger than in other subunits. Because of this and the demands of the representatives of the organizing committee, the Russian commander in chief, Gen A. Brusilov, agreed to the official Ukrainianization of some units: the two-division 34th Russian Corps under the command of Gen Pavlo Skoropadsky (renamed the 1st Ukrainian) and the 6th Russian Corps (renamed the 2nd Sich Zaporozhian Corps) under the command of Gen Mandryka. Of 4 million Ukrainians in the Russian army in 1917, only 1.5 million were Ukrainianized, and the majority of these declared themselves neutral when it came to fighting the Bolsheviks or demobilized under the influence of Bolshevik agitation.
The Central Rada itself had no clear plans concerning military organization and did not recognize the need for a standing army based on compulsory military service. Instead, the concept of Free Cossacks, a volunteer, territorial, national militia, won out and was ratified by the Rada on 13 November 1917. As a result, on the eve of the Bolshevik invasion, the Central Rada announced the demobilization of the regular army (16 January 1918). Instead of building a standing army the government began recruitment for the national militia, for which uniforms and insignia were already designed. The Ukrainian-Bolshevik war (see Ukrainian-Soviet War, 1917–21) convinced the Central Rada that Ukraine needed a regular standing army. A recruitment plan was worked out for an army that was to be made up of eight infantry corps and four cavalry divisions. Before these plans could be realized the Central Rada was overthrown by the Germans and replaced by the Hetman government. Before the downfall of the Central Rada, the UNR Army consisted of the Zaporozhian Corps (four infantry regiments, one cavalry regiment, and two light-artillery detachments), the Sich Riflemen Regiment, the Bluecoats, the Graycoats (in the process of formation), plus an indeterminate number of Free Cossacks, for a total of approximately 15,000 soldiers.
After the First All-Ukrainian Military Congress, the command of the UNR Army was taken over by the Ukrainian General Military Committee, headed by Symon Petliura. After the proclamation of the Ukrainian National Republic on 20 November 1917, a General Secretariat of Military Affairs was formed (general secretary, Petliura; chief of the general staff, Oleksander Hrekov). After the proclamation of the independence of Ukraine on 22 January 1918 the Ministry of Military Affairs of the Ukrainian National Republic was formed (Mykola Porsh, A. Nemolovsky, and Col Oleksander Zhukovsky were ministers) and, under its auspices, the Military General Staff was created (headed by Gen Hrekov, Gen B. Bobrovsky, and Col Oleksander Slyvynsky). At first the general staff had several departments (organization, liaison, supplies, training, and artillery), whose number was reduced to only two—the organizational department and the quartermaster's department—after a reorganization by Col Slyvynsky.
During the period of the Central Rada the UNR Army was in a constant state of organization. Units that were formed at the front continued to serve there until the armistice, leaving the defense of Kyiv and the government mainly to the units of the Kyiv garrison (the Haidamaka Battalion of Slobidska Ukraine, commanded by Otaman Symon Petliura, the Galician Battalion of the Sich Riflemen, 16 small battalions of Free Cossacks under Mykhailo Kovenko, and the auxiliary student battalion of the Sich Riflemen under Capt Ahapii Honcharenko, which was routed in the Battle of Kruty). Such a weak force could not hold Kyiv, and the Bolsheviks occupied the city on 8 February 1918. Only at the end of the month, after the Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the signing of the armistice with the Central Powers, were the Ukrainian forces, under Gen K. Prisovsky and Otaman Petliura and with the help of the Austro-Hungarian and German armies, able to repel the Bolsheviks. In addition to the battles for Kyiv, the Ukrainian forces (the Zaporozhian Corps under Gen Oleksander Natiiv and the detachments of Otaman Petro Bolbochan and Otaman Volodymyr Sikevych) occupied the Crimea and the Don region. But the Germans forced the Ukrainian army to leave the Crimea because it was not part of the Ukrainian National Republic and, on the eve of the establishment of the Hetman government, reduced the UNR Army to the Zaporozhian Corps after disarming the Bluecoats and the Sich Riflemen Regiment.
The Hetman government. Although the government and even the name of the country were changed (to the Ukrainian State), plans for establishing a regular army continued to be pursued. On 24 July 1918 the Council of Ministers passed a law establishing compulsory military service and ratified plans for the organization of the army (formerly proposed under the Central Rada), military courts, and medical services and supplies. In peacetime the army was to consist of 310,000 military personnel in eight territorial corps, with a budget of 1,254 million karbovantsi annually. A uniform was not established for the Ukrainian army, but military ranks and insignia were to be based on the German model, and the trident was ratified as the insignia for the cap (it remained so after the fall of the hetman). On 16 October 1918 by proclamation of the hetman, the Cossack organizational system, based on territorial units (several regiments in each unit) and otaman commanders under the hetman, was revived. The Cossacks were to be governed by the Great Cossack Council (with 32 members, some of whom were elected and others appointed). Although the otaman commanders were appointed, the Cossack system could not be put into effect before the November uprising against the hetman.
Apart from the units that remained from the period of the Central Rada (the Zaporozhian Corps, renamed the Zaporozhian Division; the Zaporozhian and the Black Sea garrisons), some units were formed during the Hetman government: the Serdiuk Guard Division (in July 1918, 5,000 men) (see Serdiuk guard divisions), the Graycoats (begun in Austria under the Central Rada), the Sich Riflemen unit (revived as a separate detachment of the Sich Riflemen at the end of August 1918). In the autumn of 1918 commissioned and non-commissioned officer corps and cavalry divisions were formed. In October 1918 the Special Corps was formed of Russian officers, and in the larger cities Russian volunteer-officer companies were formed as part of the Ukrainian army. The armed forces were acquiring a Russian character through the ‘National Guard’ (Derzhavna Varta), whose composition made it a continuation of the tsarist police, and the district special companies, which had been used for punitive expeditions. In November 1918 the Army of the Ukrainian State numbered 60,000 and was under the authority of the War Ministry. Gen Aleksandr Rogoza, a Russian, was appointed minister by the hetman; Col Kakurin was appointed chief of the general staff; Gen Drozdovsky and Gen Prokhorovych were appointed chief quartermasters.
Although Ukraine was not at war between July and October 1918, the Hetman government took an active interest in the army. However, the Army of the Ukrainian State did not develop beyond the organizational phase, although it did receive a good organizational foundation. Its development was hindered by the officers who were often indifferent or hostile to the Ukrainian movement (to become an officer one had to have a record of active service before the war and many who did were Russians) and by the German high command, which feared a sizable Ukrainian armed force. The situation improved slightly as a result of the personal visit of the hetman to the kaiser Wilhelm II in Berlin, but the continuing revolts of the populace against the oppression of the Hetman government and the arbitrariness of the Russian Whites, tolerated by the hetman, forced him to appoint as chief commander of the armed forces Gen Fedor Keller, who, on 11 November, abrogated all Ukrainian army regulations and replaced them with Russian ones. Only the November uprising against the hetman, organized by the Ukrainian National Union (which later designated the Directory of the Ukrainian National Republic) saved the UNR Army from Russification and the Ukrainian state from absorption into the Russian anti-Bolshevik movement.
The period of the Directory. Although many independent insurgent units (eg, the Dnipro Division, which fell apart after the occupation of Kyiv, and the Black Sea Division, which was crushed in battle by the Bolsheviks) took part in the uprising against Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky, the main part of the UNR Army was at first made up of those units that crossed from the hetman's side to the Directory: the Zaporozhian Division, the Graycoats, and the Sich Riflemen Regiment, which expanded into a two-division corps incorporating the Serdiuk guard divisions and other units and was renamed the Siege Corps of Sich Riflemen. Later, on the orders of the Directory, other units were formed: the Volhynia Division (composed of the hetman's Nalyvaiko Regiment, the Galician Regiment, the Czech-Ukrainian Regiment, and others) and the Podilia Division (made up of various revolutionary groups that were active in Podilia—the Karmeliuk, Zalizniak, Blackhoods [Chornoslychnyky] and other regiments). In December 1918 the General Council (Heneralna Bulava) of the Ministry of War organized the UNR Army into four groups, in accordance with the demands of the front: Left Bank (under Otaman Petro Bolbochan, in charge of the Bolshevik front), North Right Bank (under Otaman Volodymyr Oskilko, in charge of the Bolshevik-Polish front), Southern (under Gen Oleksander Hrekov, in charge of the front against the Entente), and Dniester (on the Romanian front). In February 1919 the Southern and Dniester groups were disbanded, and their units transferred to the Bolshevik front.
Apart from the regular units there were also partisan detachments, commanded by politically inexperienced officers lacking any national consciousness. They willingly rose up against Pavlo Skoropadsky, but in battles with the Bolsheviks succumbed to their propaganda, declared themselves neutral, and often, in critical moments, would cross over to the Bolshevik side (Nestor Makhno, Nykyfor Hryhoriv, and Danylo Zeleny; see Partisan movement in Ukraine, 1918–22). After the retreat to the Right Bank (spring 1919), the UNR Army was again reorganized: small units were amalgamated into 11 divisions (each consisting of three infantry, one artillery, and one cavalry regiment) and divided into five independent detachments: the Sich Riflemen (three divisions) under Col Yevhen Konovalets, the Zaporozhian Group (three divisions) under Col Volodymyr Salsky, the Volhynia Group (two divisions) under Col Vsevolod Petriv, a division under Col Oleksander Udovychenko, and two divisions under Otaman Vasyl Tiutiunnyk.
In mid-July 1919 the Ukrainian Galician Army crossed the Zbruch River and, although it continued to exist as a separate unit under its own command, co-ordinated its actions with the UNR Army under a common operational command—the supreme otaman's staff. At this time the armed forces of the Ukrainian state consisted of three Galician corps (50,000 men) and five formations of the UNR Army (30,000 men). The total fighting strength of the united armies, together with the partisan detachments (Nestor Makhno in the Katerynoslav region, Anhel in the Chernihiv region, Danylo Zeleny in the south, Ya. Shepel in the Lityn region, Nykyfor Hryhoriv in the Kherson region, and others), was about 100,000 personnel (including 35,000 combat troops), 335 cannons, 1,100 machine guns, two air regiments, and armored trains and motor vehicles.
UNR Army command. With the establishment of the Directory of the Ukrainian National Republic, military affairs were taken over by Symon Petliura. He was designated supreme otaman (commander in chief) and under his authority were put the Ministry of War (headed, in turn, by the generals Oleksander Hrekov, Vsevolod Petriv, and Volodymyr Salsky) and the acting otaman (Gen Oleksander Osetsky), who directed army operations and the general staff. The general staff was again reorganized into a two-quartermaster system (an operational section under Gen Drozdovsky and an organizational section under Gen Kakurin), with appropriate departments (operations, intelligence, foreign relations, etc). After the retreat from Kyiv the command of the UNR Army was assumed by the staff of the acting army, which consulted with Petliura only on crucial decisions. The staff of the acting army was headed by Otaman Andrii Melnyk, with Vasyl Tiutiunnyk as second in command. Gen Volodymyr Sinkler was chief quartermaster, Col Mykola Kapustiansky was operations chief, and Col Mykola Chebotariv was chief of intelligence. After the operational union of the two armies (Ukrainian Galician Army and UNR Army), a supreme otaman's staff was created. It was made up of personnel from both armies (Gen Mykola Yunakiv was chief of staff, Gen Viktor Kurmanovych was chief quartermaster, Lt Col K. Dolezhal was in charge of operations, and Lt Col Hrytsiv was in charge of intelligence).
From the First Winter Campaign to the end of the war for independence, the command of the UNR Army consisted of Gen Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko, commander in chief; Col Petro Lypko, chief of staff; and Gen Viktor Kushch, chief quartermaster. The Ministry of War was headed by Gen Oleksa Halkyn and then Col V. Salsky. The restored general staff was headed by Gen V. Sinkler, and Gen M. Yunakiv was head of the Supreme Military Council of the Ukrainian National Republic.
From December 1918 to the fall of the Directory of the Ukrainian National Republic warfare continued uninterruptedly. The front shifted, and at the same time units were re-formed and renamed. After a difficult retreat in the fall of 1919, the UNR Army found itself near Chortoryia in Volhynia, surrounded by Polish troops, by the Bolsheviks, and by Anton Denikin's army, without any possibility of maintaining a regular front. It was forced to resort to guerrilla warfare, and on 6 December 1919 the UNR Army set out on the First Winter Campaign. In this campaign the following divisions took part: Zaporozhian Division, Volhynian Division, Kyiv Division (Peasant), and some detachments of the Sich Riflemen. In May 1920, 2,680 men returned from the campaign, and they took part in the continuing Ukrainian-Soviet War. In January 1920 the Sixth Sich Division of the Army of the UNR, under Col Marko Bezruchko, and the revived Third Iron Rifle Division of the Army of the UNR, under Col Oleksander Udovychenko, were formed from Ukrainian prisoners of war interned in Poland. They were attached to the 3rd and 6th Polish armies, remaining there through the Polish-Ukrainian campaign against the Bolsheviks. At the beginning of the joint Polish-Ukrainian effort, the UNR Army was composed of the following divisions: the Zaporozhian Division, Volhynian Division, Third Iron Rifle Division, Kyiv Division, Kherson Division, and Sich Division (each made up of three infantry brigades with artillery, one cavalry regiment, and one technical regiment); there was also a separate cavalry division (see Separate Cavalry Division of the Army of the UNR). At the end of the Polish-Ukrainian war in October 1920, the UNR Army had 23,000 men. After the Polish-Bolshevik armistice the staff of the UNR Army prepared an anti-Bolshevik offensive, but the Red Army began its own offensive, and after intense battles (11–12 November 1920) the Ukrainian army retreated westward. On 21 November the UNR Army crossed the Zbruch River and was interned by the Polish authorities.
The war in Ukraine continued, fought by guerrilla detachments under the Revolutionary staff, headed by Gen Yurii Tiutiunnyk. At the beginning of November 1921 the Revolutionary staff ordered a partisan raid on the Right Bank (the so-called Second Winter Campaign) to be carried out by two groups—a Podilian unit and a Volhynian unit, made up of 1,500 volunteers from among the interned soldiers of the UNR Army. The Bolsheviks routed both groups. The Volhynian unit was surrounded and defeated near Bazar; 359 soldiers were executed (23 November 1921).
After a lengthy and difficult confinement in internment camps in Poland (Wadowice, Piotrków Trybunalski, Tuchola, Aleksandrów Kujawski, Łańcut, Strzałków, Kalisz, Szczepiórno), the interned soldiers of the UNR Army were granted the status of émigrés. The staff of the UNR Army continued to exist as an institution subordinate to the Government-in-exile of the Ukrainian National Republic. The military traditions of the UNR Army were preserved by various Ukrainian veterans' organizations, the most active of which was the Society of Former Combatants of the Ukrainian Republican Democratic Army in France (est 1927).
General characteristics of the UNR Army. Having been formed basically by Russian army personnel, the UNR Army followed Russian organizational and tactical models. Because of the frequent changes of the front, regimes, and military commands, because of the anarchy created by guerrilla detachments, and because of German and Austrian opposition, the UNR Army was never able to complete its organization through conscription or general mobilization and hence remained essentially an army of volunteers. The army had no durable home front and hence no permanent base from which to draw human and material resources. Organization, training, uniforms, arms—all the elements of a normal army—were in the process of organization and subject to the vicissitudes of the Ukrainian struggle for independence (1917–1920).
Ukraińska Rada Narodowa (UNR) – oficjalnie powstała 19 października 1918 we Lwowie (działała jednak wcześniej) z zamiarem wprowadzenia w życie prawa samostanowienia ukraińskich ziem należących do zaboru austro-węgierskiego.
W jej skład weszli wszyscy ukraińscy posłowie obu izb austriackiego parlamentu, krajowych Sejmów Galicji i Bukowiny, po 3 przedstawicieli ukraińskich partii działających w Galicji, Zakarpaciu i na Bukowinie. Oprócz tego dokooptowano znanych bezpartyjnych fachowców, dla dopełnienia przeprowadzono wybór przedstawicieli miast i powiatów oraz zarezerwowano miejsce dla przedstawicieli mniejszości narodowych (którzy nie skorzystali z danej im możliwości). Cała Rada liczyła 150 członków.
1 listopada 1918 Rada ogłosiła utworzenie Zachodnioukraińskiej Republiki Ludowej, która miała być autonomicznym krajem w ramach monarchii habsburskiej.
13 listopada 1918 uchwalono Tymczasową ustawę zasadniczą o niezależności państwowej ziem ukraińskich byłej monarchii austro-węgierskiej (konstytucję ZURL).
UNR miała rolę ustawodawczą i kontrolną parlamentu ZURL, prze nią odpowiadał rząd (Sekretariat Państwowy). Plenum Ukraińskiej Rady Narodowej wybrało Zarząd złożony z przewodniczącego oraz 9 członków. Zarząd wykonywał obowiązki głowy państwa (zatwierdzał rząd, posiadał prawo abolicji i amnestii, wyznaczał szefów wyższych urzędów państwowych, ogłaszał uchwały UNR). Decyzje podejmowano większością głosów. Pierwszym przewodniczącym Zarządu był Kost Łewycki, drugim (od 1 listopada) - Jewhen Petruszewycz.
W styczniu 1919 zawarta została unia ZURL z Ukraińską Republiką Ludową (Akt Zjednoczenia). W maju 1919 Ukraińska Armia Galicyjska wspólnie z oddziałami URL oraz wojskami carskimi Denikina wyruszyły, aby wesprzeć antybolszewickie powstanie na wschodniej Ukrainie. Ofensywa była jednak nieudana i w grudniu bolszewicy zajęli Kijów.
Przed wycofaniem się władz ZURL i UHA za Zbrucz, Zarząd UNR i Sekretariat Państwowy wspólną decyzją tymczasowo przekazały 9 czerwca 1919 swoje konstytucyjne uprawnienia Jewhenowi Petruszewyczowi, jako „upoważnionemu dyktatorowi”. Posiadał on pełnię władzy wojskowej i cywilnej.
ZURL zakończyła istnienie 16 lipca 1919, kiedy ostatnie oddziały Ukraińskiej Armii Galicyjskiej zostały wyparte za Zbrucz.Formacje Armii UNR (pdf) RUS
Ukrainian Galician Army (Ukrainska halytska armiia [UHA]). The regular army of the Western Ukrainian National Republic (ZUNR), known as the Galician Army (Halytska armiia). It was formed around a nucleus consisting of the Legion of Ukrainian Sich Riflemen and other Ukrainian detachments of the Austro-Hungarian army, which recognized the authority of the Ukrainian National Rada and took part in the November Uprising in Lviv, 1918.
The UHA was a well-organized and disciplined force. It was established as a regular army of the ZUNR by the law of 13 November 1918 on compulsory military service, which empowered the State Secretariat for Military Affairs (DSVS) to divide the country into military districts, to define an organizational structure for the army, and to call up Ukrainian males between the ages of 18 and 35 for military duty. Three military regions (Lviv, Ternopil, and Stanyslaviv) were introduced, each consisting of four districts (covering five to eight counties). The military commander of each district was responsible for recruitment, training, and combat readiness.
Until 9 June 1919 all military affairs of the ZUNR came under the jurisdiction of the State Secretariat for Military Affairs (DSVS), which was divided into a chancellery and 16 departments, and was headed initially by Col Dmytro Vitovsky (to 13 February 1919) and then by Col Viktor Kurmanovych. With the installation of the Dictatorship of the Western Province of the Ukrainian National Republic, the functions of the DSVS were transferred partly to the Military Chancellery, directed by Lt Col K. Dolezhal, and partly to the Supreme Command of the Ukrainian Galician Army (NKHA).
The Supreme Command of the Ukrainian Galician Army (NKHA) was set up in November 1918 in Lviv. Its chief, the UHA supreme commander, was appointed by the head of the Ukrainian National Rada and later by the dictator of the Western Province of the Ukrainian National Republic. All UHA units at the front came under its command; all other UHA units came under the district commands, and ultimately under the State Secretariat for Military Affairs (DSVS). When the DSVS was abolished, the NKHA assumed responsibility for supplies and training. The supreme commanders of the UHA were Col Dmytro Vitovsky (29 October–5 November 1918), Col Hryhorii Kossak (to 9 November), Col Hnat Stefaniv (to 10 December), Brig Gen Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko (to 9 June 1919), Maj Gen Oleksander Hrekov (to 5 July), Brig Gen Myron Tarnavsky (to 7 November), and Brig Gen Osyp Mykytka (to 10 February 1920). The chiefs of the General Staff included Col Mykola Marynovych (to 5 November 1918), Maj Semen Goruk (to 10 December), Col Yevhen Myshkivsky (to 12 February 1919), Col Viktor Kurmanovych (to 7 June), Col Alfred Schamanek (to 7 November 1919, and 10 February–1 March 1920), and Gen Gustav Ziritz (to 10 February 1920).
The territory controlled by the UHA was divided into 13 military districts of four or five counties each: Berezhany, Chortkiv, Drohobych, Kolomyia, Lviv, Peremyshl, Rava-Ruska, Sambir, Sokal, Stanyslaviv, Stryi, Ternopil, and Zolochiv (Lviv region). The commands of the districts, which grew out of military committees established in November 1918, were responsible for security and public order in the army's rear. They conducted drafts, trained draftees and organized them into infantry units, and protected government property.
The first regular UHA units were joined by worker and student detachments, which sprang up spontaneously to resist the Polish underground in Lviv and the Polish army invading Galicia. By December 1918 the Galician Army consisted of combat groups of different strength and profile—regular, semi-insurgent, and insurgent. The strongest were the Navariia, Stare Selo, and Skhid groups operating around Lviv. On the northern border of the ZUNR the Northern Group under Col Osyp Mykytka was organized to repel the Polish offensive. The oblast command in Stryi, under Col Hryhorii Kossak, took charge of the groups that sprang up on the western front, including the Komancha, Liutkiv, Staryi Sambir, Hlyboka, Krukenychi (see Krukenychi Group), Rudky, South I, and South II groups. They did not form a continuous front and were rarely in contact with the NKHA or with each other. At the beginning of December 1918, when Gen Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko took command of the Galician Army, it numbered 30,000 officers and men, half of whom were combat-ready.
In December 1918 all field units were brought under the Supreme Command of the Ukrainian Galician Army, and in January–February 1919 they were organized into three corps, each consisting of four brigades. A brigade generally had three to six infantry battalions (sometimes merged into two regiments), a cavalry company, a field artillery regiment with four to six batteries, a sapper company, and communications, auxiliary, and support groups. The First Corps, based in Kaminka-Strumylova and commanded by Col Osyp Mykytka, consisted of the Sokal Brigade of the Ukrainian Galician Army, the Rava Brigade of the Ukrainian Galician Army, the Uhniv Brigade of the Ukrainian Galician Army, and the Yaniv Brigade of the Ukrainian Galician Army. The Second Corps, based in Bibrka and commanded by Col Myron Tarnavsky, included the First Brigade of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen and the Kolomyia Brigade of the Ukrainian Galician Army, the Third (Berezhany) Brigade of the Ukrainian Galician Army, and the Zolochiv Brigade of the Ukrainian Galician Army. The Third Corps, based in Stryi and commanded by Col Hryhorii Kossak and then Gen M. Gembachiv, encompassed the Lviv Brigade of the Ukrainian Galician Army (initially named the Seventh Stryi Brigade), the Sambir Brigade of the Ukrainian Galician Army, the Mountain Brigade of the Ukrainian Galician Army, and the Stryi Brigade of the Ukrainian Galician Army (formed out of the Krukenychi Group and the Hlyboka Group). The basic combat unit was the kurin (51 on the Polish front, 48 on the Soviet front), consisting of four companies (sotni), which were in turn divided into platoons (choty).
In June 1919 the UHA at its maximum strength numbered 70,000 to 75,000 men, including reserves. Its proportion of officers to men was very low, only 2.4 percent. To overcome the shortage of staff and higher officers, non-Ukrainian specialists of the Austrian-Hungarian army and officers of the Army of the Ukrainian National Republic were recruited. To train young officers three infantry schools, an artillery, and a communications cadet school were set up in Galicia, and one infantry and artillery school in central Ukraine.
The bulk (67 percent) of the combat force was infantry. Each kurin had a machine-gun company. About 10 percent of the soldiers belonged to artillery units, with 58 batteries on the Polish front and 47 on the Soviet front. The Galician Army also had two or three armored cars and two armored trains. Cavalry did not play an important role, because the State Secretariat for Military Affairs preferred the tactics of positional warfare. On Gen Oleksander Hrekov's recommendation a cavalry brigade and regiment were set up in June and July 1919 with a total of 1,340 sabers. The first air force unit was organized by Capt Petro Franko in Krasne. With the help of former pilots of the Russian army, a flying regiment under Col B. Huber (later under Col D. Bulat Kanukov) was formed. Until April 1919 the UHA had an advantage in the air over the Polish forces, but it lost it as the Polish strength increased (150 Polish planes vs 40 Ukrainian). Four of the nine sapper companies were attached to the corps and five to the brigades. The companies were formed and trained by the reserve sapper kurin in Chortkiv, which was reorganized into a technical kurin under K. Kiziuk's command. Communications specialists were trained in Stanyslaviv. Each corps had two to five field hospitals and sanitary trains. Because of a severe shortage of medical personnel and supplies, medical care deteriorated quickly, and by the end of 1919 the army fell victim to typhus.
In the Ukrainian-Polish War in Galicia, 1918–19, the UHA scored some victories against the numerically stronger and better-equipped Polish forces. After the Chortkiv offensive it retreated across the Zbruch River and joined up with the UNR Army to take part in the Ukrainian-Soviet War, 1917–21. Reduced by typhus to a mere 5,000 combat-ready men, the UHA accepted absorption into the Red Army and became the Red Ukrainian Galician Army. Having been thrown into battle against the Poles, its First Brigade was defeated and captured; its Second and Third brigades deserted the Red Army and allowed themselves to be disarmed by the Poles. By the end of April 1920 the UHA had ceased to exist.
Ukraińska Armia Galicyjska (ukr. Українськa Галицька Армія, UHA) - nazwa regularnej armii ZURL po porozumieniu z Armią Ochotniczą Antona Denikina 17 listopada 1919, wcześniej nosiła nazwę Armii Galicyjskiej (HA).
Zalążkiem UHA był Legion USS i oddziały armii austro-węgierskiej, złożone z Ukraińców, które we Lwowie i na prowincji 1 listopada 1918 podporządkowały się rozkazom Ukraińskiej Rady Narodowej.
Pierwszą walką HA była walka o Lwów, rozpoczęta 1 listopada 1918 przez żołnierzy 2, 3 i 11 kurenia USS (1410 żołnierzy i 60 podoficerów) pod dowództwem Dmytra Witowskiego, przybyłych z Bukowiny.
Regularny charakter UHA potwierdziła uchwała Ukraińskiej Rady Narodowej z dnia 13 listopada 1918 o obowiązku służby wojskowej obywateli ZURL. Na bazie tej ustawy Państwowy Komitet Spraw Wojskowych (DSWS) wydał rozporządzenie o wojskowym terytorialnym podziale terenu ZURL, organizacji HA i mobilizacji mężczyzn od 18 do 35 roku życia.
Terytorium ZURL (bez Zakarpacia) podzielono na 3 obwody wojskowe: Lwów, Tarnopol, Stanisławów, a z nich każdy na 4 okręgi wojskowe (każdy okręg obejmował 5 do 8 powiatów). Na czele każdego okręgu stał okręgowy komendant wojskowy, który odpowiadał za pobór i wyszkolenie żołnierzy oraz organizację oddziałów wojskowych.
Wszystkimi sprawami wojskowymi ZURL zajmował się Państwowy Komitet Spraw Wojskowych (DSWS), który funkcjonował do 9 czerwca 1919. Dzielił się on na Kancelarię Wojskową DSWS i 16 oddziałów. Podlegały mu wszystkie sprawy wojskowe, od wyszkolenia i uzbrojenia, po umundurowanie i wyżywienie. Sekretarzami Spraw Wojskowych byli: płk Dmytro Wytowskyj (do 13 lutego 1919), oraz płk Wiktor Kurmanowycz (do 9 czerwca 1919). Po ogłoszeniu dyktatury Zarządu UNR funkcje DSWS przeszły częściowo do Komendy Głównej UHA, a częściowo do nowo utworzonej Kancelarii Wojskowej Dyktatora, której szefem został ppłk K. Dołeżal.
Utworzona w maju 1919 Komendantura Zaplecza, która przejęła tymczasowo funkcje DSWS, weszła w czerwcu w skład Komendantury Etapowej HA. Dowódcą armii był wyznaczony przez UNR (od czerwca 1919 przez Dyktatora) Naczelny Komendant, który do pomocy posiadał Naczelną Komendę Armii Galicyjskiej (NKHA, odpowiednik Sztabu Generalnego). Szef Sztabu Generalnego był jednocześnie zastępcą Komendanta Naczelnego.
NKHA kierowała operacjami UHA na froncie, a także była zwierzchnikiem wszystkich oddziałów UHA, rozmieszczonych na froncie. Wszystkie inne oddziały podlegały tyłowym komendom okręgów – DSWS. NKHA podzieliła się według wzorów austriackich na wydział operacyjny i organizacyjno-materiałowy. Za dowództwa generała Hrekowa w czerwcu 1919 NKHA zreorganizowano: podzielono na Sztab Operacyjny, Oddział Główny i Komendę Etapową. W ślad za skasowaniem DSWS NKHA podlegały również wszystkie oddziały szkolne i zapasowe.
Do końca grudnia 1918 HA była mieszaniną różnych grup regularnego, półpartyzanckiego, a nawet partyzanckiego charakteru, które tworzyły załogę Lwowa, lub operowały na szlakach natarcia wojsk polskich. Grupy ten nazywały się bardzo różnie, i miały różnorodny skład w zależności od miejscowych umów. W grudniu 1918 istniało 15 grup bojowych różnej wielkości i składu. Najsilniejszymi były podlwowskie grupy: „Nawarija”, „Stare Seło”, „Schid”. Na północnej granicy ZURL dla odparcia polskiego natarcia utworzono grupę „Piłnicz” (dow. płk O. Mykytka), na południowym zachodzie Okręgową Komendę w Stryju (dow. płk H. Kossak), która organizowała różne grupy, powstałe na froncie zachodnim . Front zachodni ciągnął się Komańczy (do 19 stycznia) do Horodka przez Lutowiska, Stary Sambor, Hłyboką, Krukienice, Rudki, Piwdeń I i II.
Na przełomie stycznia i lutego HA zreorganizowano (według planu płk Mieszkowskiego). Grupy bojowe zorganizowano w 3 korpusy po 4 brygady. Każda brygada składała się z 3 do 6 kureniów piechoty (w niektórych brygadach zorganizowanych w 2 pułki), 1 konnej sotni, 1 pułku artylerii polowej (z 3 do 6 bateriami), 1 sotni saperskiej oraz pomocniczych służb i oddziałów.
Ostatnie dwie grupy, razem z 8 Brygadą działały pod wspólnym dowództwem płk Antina Krawsa.
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